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The Law and American Indian Grave Protection

Georgia Laws

Summaries follow of burial/archaeological laws yielded through a keyword search for "archaeology" and "burial" on 2001 March 30 at the State Historic Preservation Legislation Database found at the NCSL (National Conference of State Legislatures) web site, that database then updated through 1999. These summaries are reprinted under the Fair Use doctrine of international copyright law which may be found at www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html

Links in the summaries lead to full text.

http://www.ibsgwatch.org is not responsible for any inaccuracies or timeliness of information.


Code Book: Official Code of Georgia
Citation: 12- 3- 52
Section Title: Archeological exploration, excavation or surveying; administrative appeal of department orders

Summary:

Reserves for the state, acting through the Department of Natural Resources, the exclusive right and privilege of exploring, excavating or surveying all prehistoric and historic sites, ruins, artifacts, treasure and treasure trove found on all lands owned or controlled by the state, except for property under the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia. Requires that all findings of ruins, artifacts, treasure or treasure trove shall be reported to the department within two working days after being found. Authorizes the department to grant permits to or enter into contractual agreements with recognized scientific institutions or qualified individuals to conduct field archeological research or salvage archeology through data recovery on such state properties. Requires that all information and archeologically significant objects derived from archeological research conducted on state lands shall be used solely for scientific or public educational purposes and shall remain the property of the state, except for items associated with burial sites required to be repatriated by P.L. 101-601 or by 44-12-262 of the code. Urges that all archeological research conducted on privately owned land in the state shall be likewise undertaken solely by recognized scientific institutions or qualified individuals. Requires all permit applicants or contractors to submit a detailed research plan for conducting field archeological research or salvage archeology, which shall outline the location, objectives, scope, methods and expected results, and, if burial sites are involved, shall include a plan for identifying and notifying lineal descendants, skeletal analysis, curation and disposition. Authorizes the department to promulgate rules and regulations as may be necessary to preserve, survey, protect, recover and repatriate such findings. Allows a permit to be renewed or revoked by the department. Directs the department, upon issuing a permit or entering into a contract involving aboriginal, prehistoric or American Indian burial sites, to send written notice to the Council on American Indian Concerns created under 44-12-280. Enables any person aggrieved or adversely affected by any order or action of the department pursuant to this section, upon petition within thirty days after the issuance of such order or taking of such action, to have a right to a hearing before an administrative law judge appointed by the Board of Natural Resources, whose decision shall be final.

Primary Topic: Archeological Activities

    Secondary Topic:
    • Permit / Site Investigation Authority
Primary Topic: Ethnic / Racial Historic Preservation Issues
    Secondary Topic:
    • Native American Burial and Other Preservation Issues

Code Book: Official Code of Georgia
Citation: 12- 3- 54
Section Title: Penalty: archeology

Summary:

Declares that a person is guilty of a misdemeanor who violates 12-3-52 or who intentionally defaces, injures, destroys, displaces or removes an object or site of archeological or historical value located in areas as designated in 12-3-52.

Primary Topic: Archeological Activities

    Secondary Topic:
    • Violation / Penalty / Enforcement

Code Book: Official Code of Georgia
Citation: 12- 3- 80 through 12- 3- 83
Section Title: Submerged cultural properties

Summary:

Declares for the state title to and the exclusive right to investigate, survey and recover all submerged cultural properties, defined as all prehistoric and historic sites, ruins, artifacts, treasure, treasure-trove and shipwrecks and vessels and their cargo or tackle that have remained on the bottom for more than fifty years and are found in the Atlantic Ocean within the three-mile territorial limit of the state or within its navigable waters. Directs that the Board of Natural Resources may determine certain submerged cultural resources to be of no cultural or economic value to the state and, as such, shall not be subject to the provisions of this part, including any permit requirements. Establishes the Department of Natural Resources as the custodian of all submerged cultural resources. Directs the board to promulgate rules and regulations necessary to preserve, survey, protect and recover such underwater properties and to administer this part. Requires that all findings of submerged cultural properties shall be reported to the department within two working days after being found. Directs the state archeologist to have the same duties in conducting and supervising the surveillance, protection, preservation, survey and recovery of submerged cultural resources as are given in 12-3-53 for land resources. Requires a person desiring to conduct investigation, survey or recovery operations that may endanger, remove, displace or destroy any part of a submerged cultural resource to apply first to the department for a permit. Requires the applicant to submit a detailed plan for the operation and to name the professional archeologist who will supervise or conduct the operation. Authorizes the department to grant a permit, subject to such terms and conditions as the department deems appropriate, if the department determines that the protection of the public interest and the preservation and protection of the submerged cultural property shall be served. Prohibits the department from issuing a permit allowing the permittee to retain any recovered submerged cultural resources unless the department determines such resources to be of no significant historical, archeological or monetary value. Allows permits to be renewed or revoked by the department. Allows the department to contract with any person for the investigation, survey, protection, preservation or recovery of underwater cultural resources on such terms and conditions as the department deems appropriate. Declares that a person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor who violates this part by failing to obtain a required permit or who intentionally defaces, injures, destroys, displaces or removes any underwater cultural resource in a manner not in accordance with a permit.

Primary Topic: Archeological Activities

    Secondary Topic:
    • Permit / Site Investigation Authority
    • Underwater Archeological Activity
    • Violation / Penalty / Enforcement

Code Book: Official Code of Georgia
Citation: 12- 3-620 through 12- 3-622
Section Title: Protection of archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric and historic sites

Summary:

Declares it to be a misdemeanor for a person, unless operating under the provisions of 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, or with the express written permission of the owner, knowingly or willfully to: (1) dig, probe, break, crack, carve upon, write upon, burn or otherwise mark upon, remove or in any manner destroy, disturb, deface, mar or harm the structures, features, surfaces or contents of an archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric or historic site, provided that, except for human remains and burial objects, this paragraph shall not apply to the collecting of artifacts exposed on the surface; (2) disturb or alter in any manner the prevailing condition of an archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric or historic site, provided that, except for human remains and burial objects, this paragraph shall not apply to the collecting of artifacts exposed on the surface; (3) break, force, tamper with or otherwise disturb a lock, gate, door or other obstruction designed to control or prevent access to any area containing an archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric or historic site or artifacts; or (4) enter an archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric or historic site posted against trespassing or a site with a lock, gate, door or other obstruction designed to control or prevent access to a site. Declares a person to be guilty of a misdemeanor who shall commit any of the above violations. Requires a person to notify the Department of Natural Resources in writing at least five business days before beginning an investigation or disturbance of an archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric or historic site, unless that person is operating under the provisions of 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, or with the express written permission of the owner. Directs the department to notify immediately the Council on American Indian Concerns of any such investigation that might involve American Indian human remains or burial objects. Requires the department to make available to the council any information pertaining to investigations conducted pursuant to 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended. Declares it to be a misdemeanor for a person, after December 1, 1992, knowingly to buy, sell, trade, import or export for purposes of buying, selling or trading for profit any American Indian burial object, sacred object or object of cultural patrimony; subjects a person convicted of such violations to a fine not to exceed $500 for each burial object, sacred object or object of cultural patrimony involved.

Primary Topic: Archeological Activities

    Secondary Topic:
    • Disposition of Human Remains
    • Violation / Penalty / Enforcement

Code Book: Official Code of Georgia
Citation: 31-21- 6
Section Title: Notification of law enforcement agency upon disturbance, destruction or debasement of human remains

Summary:

Requires a person to notify the local law enforcement agency immediately if that person accidentally or inadvertently discovers or exposes human remains or knows or has reason to believe that interred human remains have been or are being disturbed, destroyed, defaced, mutilated, removed or exposed without a permit for archeological excavation issued pursuant to 36-72-4, 12-3-52 or 12-3-82, or without written permission of the landowner for archeological excavation on the site by an archeologist or not in compliance with 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended. Directs the local law enforcement agency to notify the county medical examiner immediately. Directs the medical examiner, if it is determined that an investigation of the death is not required, to notify the local governing authority and the Department of Natural Resources. Directs the department, if the human remains are believed to be those of one or more American Indians or the aboriginal or prehistoric ancestors American Indians, to notify the Council on American Indian Concerns. Requires that all land-disturbing activity likely to further disturb the human remains shall cease until: the medical examiner, after determining that investigation of the death is required, has completed forensic examination of the site; a permit is issued for land use change or disturbance to a cemetery pursuant to 36-72-4; a permit is issued or a contract is let for archeological investigation on state owned land pursuant to 12-3-52; written permission is sought from the landowner for the conduct of an archeological excavation; or, if no such permits are sought, the Department of Natural Resources arranges with the landowner for the protection of the human remains. Exempts normal farming activity from the provisions of this code.

Primary Topic: Archeological Activities

    Secondary Topic:
    • Disposition of Human Remains

Code Book: Official Code of Georgia
Citation: 31-21-45
Section Title: Public exhibit or display of dead human bodies of American Indians or American Indian human remains

Summary:

Declares it to be unlawful to exhibit or display to the public dead human bodies of American Indians or American Indian human remains except in connection with: funeral or burial services; education or instruction as part of a course of study at an accredited university, college or school; or educational exhibits or displays as may be allowed only with the express written permission of the lineal descendants of the deceased where such descendants can be identified or by the agent of the deceased's estate, or, where there is no lineal descendant or agent of the estate, by the Council on American Indian Concerns. Declares that any person who violates this code shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one year nor more than two years.

Primary Topic: Archeological Activities

    Secondary Topic:
    • Disposition of Human Remains

Code Book: Official Code of Georgia
Citation: 36-72-1 through 36-72-16
Section Title: Abandoned cemeteries and burial grounds

Summary:

Authorizes counties and municipalities to preserve and protect any cemetery or burial ground that has been abandoned or is not being maintained by the person who is legally responsible for its upkeep. Prohibits a known cemetery, burial ground, human remains or burial object from being knowingly disturbed for the purpose of developing or changing the use of the land unless a permit is first obtained from the governing body in the county or municipality where the cemetery is located. Requires an application for such a permit to include: evidence of ownership of the land; a report prepared by an archeologist stating the number and location of graves believed to be present; a survey showing the boundaries of the cemetery based on the archeologist's report; a plan prepared by a genealogist for identifying and notifying the descendants of those buried in such cemeteries; and a plan for mitigation or avoidance of the effects of the planned activity on the cemetery, specifying methods of disinterment and the location and method of disposition of human remains. Directs the governing body to inform promptly any descendant who indicates an interest in the disposition of the human remains and burial objects regarding proposals for mitigation, the terms of any permit issued, the time and place of public hearings and appeal procedures. Requires the governing body to hold a public hearing within fifteen days after it is satisfied that all reasonable efforts have been made to notify descendants and to notify the applicant in writing of its decision within thirty days after the public hearing. Allows the governing body to approve or deny the permit in whole or to require additional mitigation measures, including the relocation of the proposed project, reservation of the cemetery as an undeveloped area within the proposed development and proper disinterment and disposition of the human remains. Directs the governing body, in making its determination, to presume in favor of leaving the cemetery undisturbed and to consider the comments of descendants or other interested parties, the economic costs of mitigation, the adequacy of the applicant's plans for disinterment and disposition of human remains or burial objects and the balancing of the applicant's interest with the public's and descendants' interests in the value of the undisturbed cultural and natural environment. Allows an applicant or interested party dissatisfied with a decision of the governing body to appeal to the superior court of the county where the cemetery is located, during which time the applicant may not begin or resume activities that comply with the permit without the permission of the governing body and the party seeking judicial review or order of the court. Directs the superior court of the county to have exclusive jurisdiction over the permit application when a state agency or political subdivision files a permit under this chapter. Directs a state agency or political subdivision whose activities disturb an abandoned cemetery to bear the cost of mitigating the harm to the cemetery or reinterring the human remains as part of the project. Requires a private person or entity whose activities disturb an abandoned cemetery to bear the cost of mitigating the harm to the cemetery or reinterring the human remains. Authorizes the local governing body to bear the cost of mitigating harm to an abandoned cemetery or reinterring exposed human remains if such harm or exposure is caused through vandalism or erosion. Requires the applicant's professional archeologist to supervise, monitor or carry out at the expense of the applicant any disinterment and disposition of human remains or burial objects permitted under this chapter. Declares that any person who violates the provisions of this chapter shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of a high and aggravated nature and, upon conviction, shall pay a fine of not more than $5,000 for each grave site disturbed, provided that any person who violates the provisions of this chapter requiring a permit to disturb a cemetery for redevelopment or to change the use of the land, upon conviction, shall be incarcerated for not more than six months and shall pay a fine not less than $5,000 for each grave disturbed.

Primary Topic: Archeological Activities

    Secondary Topic:
    • Permit / Site Investigation Authority
    • Violation / Penalty / Enforcement

Code Book: Official Code of Georgia
Citation: 44-12-260 through 44-12-264
Section Title: American Indian human remains and burial objects held by museumsFull text of 44-12-262

Summary:

Requires any museum, including any state or local government agency or any institution of higher learning, having possession or control over holdings or collections of American Indian human remains or burial objects to compile an inventory of such items and, to the extent possible based on information possessed by such museums, identify the geographical and cultural affiliation of the items. Directs that such inventories shall be completed in consultation with American Indian tribes no later than July 1, 1997, and shall be made available to the secretary of state and the Council on American Indian Concerns. Requires a museum, if it has determined the cultural affiliation of any particular American Indian human remains or burial objects in its possession, to notify the affected tribe within six months after the completion of the museum's inventory and to provide copies of the notification to the secretary of state and the council. Directs the museum to return expeditiously any remains or objects upon the request of a known lineal descendant of the particular American Indian or upon the request of a tribe, if a cultural affiliation is established between the remains and the tribe. Allows the museum to delay repatriation of any remains or objects that the secretary of state and the council determine are indispensable for the completion of a specific scientific study of major benefit to the state. Requires the museum to repatriate such remains or objects no later than 120 days after completion of the scientific study. Directs the secretary of state and the council, if they cannot agree on the benefit of the scientific study, each to appoint one representative to serve on a committee created and convened for the sole purpose of resolving the issue. Directs that such a committee shall be chaired by a person appointed by the governor, who shall vote to break a tie. Directs the council to monitor and review the implementation of inventory and identification process and repatriation activities to ensure a fair, objective consideration and assessment of available relevant information. Declares that any museum that fails to comply with the provisions for inventory and repatriation under this code shall be subject to a civil penalty to be imposed by the secretary of state. Directs that such penalty shall be based upon: the archeological, historical or commercial value of the item involved; the damages suffered, both economic and noneconomic, by an aggrieved party; and the number of violations that have occurred. Limits the aggregate amount of such civil penalty to no more than $5,000.

Primary Topic: Archeological Activities

    Secondary Topic:
    • Disposition of Human Remains
    • Violation / Penalty / Enforcement

Code Book: Official Code of Georgia
Citation: 44-12-280 through 44-12-285
Section Title: Council on American Indian Concerns

Summary:

Creates the Council on American Indian Concerns, to consist of nine members appointed by the governor, of whom four shall be American Indians, three shall represent the scientific community and shall include at least one archeologist and one anthropologist and two shall be selected from the public at large. Directs the governor to consult the Georgia Tribes of Eastern Cherokee, Inc., the Human Relations Commission, the Georgia Council of Professional Archeologists, the Society for Georgia Archeology and the Department of Natural Resources for recommendations before appointing members to the council. Directs the council to undertake the following duties: serve as a resource for the notification of relatives pursuant to 36-72-5 relating to permits for land use change or disturbance to cemeteries or burial grounds; receive notice of permits or contracts issued pursuant to 12-3-52 relating to archeological exploration, excavation or surveys that affect aboriginal, prehistoric or American Indian burial sites; monitor the inventory and identification process of American Indian human remains and burial objects conducted by museums pursuant to 44-12-261 to ensure a fair, objective consideration and assessment of all available relevant information and evidence; facilitate disputes among American Indian tribes, lineal descendants of American Indians and museums relating to the return of American Indian remains and burial objects pursuant to 44-12-262; advise the Department of Natural Resources, the General Assembly, the Human Relations Commission, the secretary of state, local governments and state and local law enforcement agencies regarding policy matters relating to issues affecting American Indians; and apply for and receive grants, gifts and direct appropriations from any government or private organization or individual. Requires the council to make an annual report of its activities to the governor.

Primary Topic: State Agencies / Institutions

    Secondary Topic:
    • Native American / Indian Affairs Commission / Office / Board

These Statutes posted are current through the 2000 Session of the General Assembly. However, the Statutes posted from the 2000 Session may not yet be in effect. The effective date of the Statutes are not listed and one is advised to verify the effective date of any Statutes. Any person or entity who relies on information obtained solely from this Site does so at his or her own risk.

12-3-52

As retrieved from Official Code 12-3-52

(a) The State of Georgia, acting through the department and its authorized officers and employees, reserves to itself the exclusive right and privilege of exploring, excavating, or surveying all prehistoric and historic sites, ruins, artifacts, treasure, and treasure-trove, and other similar sites and objects found on all lands owned or controlled by the state, provided that this reservation shall not apply to property under the jurisdiction of the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia.

(b) All findings of such ruins, artifacts, treasure, treasure-trove, and other similar sites and objects shall be reported to the department within two days, Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays excluded, after being found.

(c) The department is authorized to grant permits to or enter into contractual agreements with recognized scientific institutions or qualified individuals to conduct field archeological research or salvage archeology through data recovery on such state properties if, in the opinion of the department, conditions or situations warrant such arrangements or agreements. All such permits and agreements that affect burial sites or burial objects shall be issued by the department in accordance with the procedures outlined in subsection (d) of this Code section. All such information and archeologically significant objects derived from archeological research conducted on state lands shall be utilized solely for scientific or public educational purposes and shall remain the property of the state with the exception of those items required to be repatriated by Public Law 101-601 or by Code Section 44-12-262. In addition, the State of Georgia urges that all archeological research conducted on privately owned land within the boundaries of the state be likewise undertaken solely by recognized scientific institutions or qualified individuals.

(d)(1) The department shall issue permits and enter into contractual agreements with recognized scientific institutions or qualified individuals for the purposes enumerated in subsection (c) of this Code section on all state owned or state controlled lands.

(2) Applicants or contractors shall submit a detailed research plan for conducting such field archeological research or salvage archeology which outlines the location, objectives, scope, methods, and expected results.

(3) If burial sites are involved, the research plan or design must include a plan for identifying and notifying lineal descendants, for skeletal analysis, and for curation and disposition as prescribed by Public Law 101-601 or by Part 1 of Article 7 of Chapter 12 of Title 44.

(4) The department, as custodian of all prehistoric and historic sites, ruins, artifacts, treasure, and treasure-trove, and other similar sites and objects found on state owned or state controlled lands, is empowered to promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to preserve, survey, protect, recover, and repatriate such findings.

(5) Permits may be renewed upon or prior to expiration upon such terms and conditions as the department deems appropriate.

(6) A permit may be revoked by the department upon a determination by the department that the permit holder has violated this chapter or any term or condition of its permit. Any determination to revoke or deny a permit may be administratively and judicially reviewed in the manner provided in subsection (e) of this Code section.

(7) Upon issuing a permit or entering into a contract that involves aboriginal, prehistoric, or American Indian burial sites, the department shall send written notice to the Council on American Indian Concerns created by Code Section 44-12-280.

(e) Any person who is aggrieved or adversely affected by any order or action of the department shall, upon petition within 30 days after the issuance of such order or taking of such action, have a right to a hearing before an administrative law judge appointed by the Board of Natural Resources. The hearing before the administrative law judge shall be conducted in accordance with Chapter 13 of Title 50, the "Georgia Administrative Procedure Act." The decision of the administrative law judge shall constitute the final decision of the board and any party to the hearing, including the department, shall have the right of judicial review thereof in accordance with Chapter 13 of Title 50, the "Georgia Administrative Procedure Act." Persons are "aggrieved or adversely affected" where the challenged action has caused or will cause them injury in fact and where the injury is to an interest within the zone of interests to be protected or regulated by the statutes that the department is empowered to administer and enforce. In the event the department asserts in response to the petition before the administrative law judge that the petitioner is not aggrieved or adversely affected, the administrative law judge shall take evidence and hear arguments on this issue and thereafter make a ruling on same before continuing on with the hearing. The burden of going forward with evidence on this issue shall rest with the petitioner.


12-3-621.

As retrieved from Official Code 12-3-621

(a) It shall be unlawful for any person or entity not operating under the provisions of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, or the express written permission of the owner willfully or knowingly to:

(1) Dig, probe, break, crack, carve upon, write upon, burn, or otherwise mark upon, remove, or in any manner destroy, disturb, deface, mar, or harm the structures, features, surfaces, or contents of archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric, or historic sites; provided, however, that except for human remains and burial objects, this paragraph shall not apply to the collecting of artifacts exposed on the surface;

(2) Disturb or alter in any manner the prevailing condition of any archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric, or historic site; provided, however, that except for human remains and burial objects, this paragraph shall not apply to the collecting of artifacts exposed on the surface;

(3) Break, force, tamper with, or otherwise disturb a lock, gate, door, or other obstruction designed to control or prevent access to any area containing an archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric, or historic site or artifacts, even though entrance thereto may not be gained; or

(4) Enter an archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric, or historic site posted against trespassing or a site with a lock, gate, door, or other obstruction designed to control or prevent access to the site.

(b) When the surface of any archeological, aboriginal, prehistoric, or historic site is disturbed by a person not operating under the provisions of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, for the purpose of investigating the site or discovering artifacts with the written permission of the landowner, such person shall notify the department in writing at least five business days before beginning any such investigation or disturbance. The department shall immediately notify the Council on American Indian Concerns created by Code Section 44-12-280 of any such investigation that might involve American Indian human remains or burial objects. The department shall make available to the council any information pertaining to investigations conducted pursuant to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended.

(c) Any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this Code section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.


44-12-262.

As retrieved from Official Code 44-12-262

(a) Upon the request of a known lineal descendant of the particular American Indian or, if a cultural affiliation is established between a particular American Indian tribe and particular human remains or burial objects, the request of the tribe, and pursuant to subsections (d) and (e) of this Code section, the museum shall expeditiously return such remains and objects. However, no human remains or burial objects shall be repatriated outside of the State of Georgia unless claimed by a known lineal descendant of the deceased person, as proved by clear and convincing evidence. (b) The return of human remains and burial objects covered by this part shall be in consultation with the requesting descendant or tribe to determine the place and manner of delivery of such items. (c) Where cultural affiliation between an American Indian tribe and human remains or burial objects has not been established in an inventory prepared pursuant to Code Section 44-12-261, such American Indian tribe can establish cultural affiliation by a preponderance of the evidence based upon geographical, kinship, biological, archeological, anthropological, linguistic, folkloric, oral tradition, historical, or other relevant information or expert opinion. (d) If either a lineal descendant of the deceased person or an American Indian tribe culturally affiliated with human remains or burial objects requests the return of such American Indian human remains or burial objects, the museum shall expeditiously return such items unless such items are indispensable for the completion of a specific scientific study, the outcome of which would be of major benefit to the State of Georgia, as determined by the Secretary of State and the council. Such items shall be returned by no later than 120 days after the date on which scientific study is completed. If the Secretary of State and the council cannot agree on the benefit of the scientific study, then they shall each appoint one representative to serve on a committee created and convened for the sole purpose of resolving the issue. The Governor shall appoint a person to chair the committee. Such person may not be an employee of the Secretary of State or a member of the council. The chairperson may vote to break a tie. (e) When there are multiple requests for repatriation of any American Indian human remains or burial objects and after complying with the requirements of this part the museum cannot clearly determine which requesting party is the most appropriate claimant, the museum may retain such item until the requesting parties agree upon its disposition or the dispute is resolved pursuant to the provisions of this article or in a court of competent jurisdiction. (f) Any museum which repatriates any American Indian human remains or burial objects in good faith pursuant to this part shall not be liable for claims by an aggrieved party or for claims of breach of fiduciary duty or public trust. (g) Nothing in this Code section shall require private citizens to surrender artifact collections that do not contain burial objects.

Reprinted under the Fair Use www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html doctrine of international copyright law.




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