Indian Burial and Sacred Grounds Watch

indexmission
siteslearnactionlinkscontact

Subjects

Federal laws

State laws

Some preserved sites.

Some history and culture

Controversies Concerning Archaeology

American Indian Voices

News Archive Index

Return to main Learn page


Please inform the webmaster of any broken links!

Federal and State Protected Sites, Preserved Mounds

Mississippi

Indian Mounds in Mississippi Subject Of Park Service Statement

WASHINGTON, Sept 6, 2001 (States News Service via COMTEX) -- The National Park Service, part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, has issued the following press release detailing the new National Register travel itinerary highlights for Indian Mounds in Mississippi.

Date: 09/06/2001

Contact: Cindy Wood (202) 208-6843

New National Register Travel Itinerary Highlights Indian Mounds of Mississippi

For Release: September 6, 2001

WASHINGTON -- The National Park Service's (NPS) National Register of Historic Places today unveiled its newest online travel itinerary, Indian Mounds of Mississippi, featuring 11 historic American Indian mounds throughout the state of Mississippi.

Found at cr.nps.gov/nr, the travel itinerary highlights publicly-owned, visitor-accessible American Indian Mound sites of Mississippi, providing a compact source of information on these impressive landmarks of the ancient past.

"These mounds stand as a testament to the vitality and creativity of their makers, who developed complex societies in the southeastern United States," said NPS Director Fran Mainella. "The American Indian Mounds provide us with the opportunity to learn from and experience the wonder of these dramatic memorials to the ancient past and the rich legacy of American Indian cultural achievement."

For each of the 11 featured historic mounds, the itinerary includes a written description of the site's significance, including color photographs, directions and public accessibility information.

At the bottom of each page a navigation bar links to three essays that explain more about the history of the mound builders, how the mounds were built, and current preservation efforts regarding these historic treasures.

These essays also provide historical and archeological background material for the sites included in the itinerary.

In the Learn More section, the itineraries link to regional and local web sites that provide visitors with further historical information relating to the Indian Mounds of Mississippi.

The itinerary can be viewed online, or printed out if you plan to visit the Indian Mounds of Mississippi in person. The online Mississippi map presents a statewide overview of the location of the mounds.

The travel itinerary is derived from a brochure prepared by the NPS' Southeast Archeological Center in conjunction with the Mississippi Department of Archives and History.

The mounds listed in the travel itinerary are protected under the jurisdiction of state or federal agencies committed by law to their preservation.

Additional information for the itinerary came from the NPS' Ancient Architects of the Mississippi website, found at
cr.nps.gov/aad/feature/feature.htm.

The Southeast Archeological Center and Historic Preservation Division of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History are the 11th set of more than 30 organizations working directly with the NPS' National Register of Historic Places to create travel itineraries.

National Register Travel Itineraries for such destinations as Hardin County, Iowa, and Lexington, Kentucky, will debut this year, with many more to follow.

The National Register of Historic Places is the nation's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects significant in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering and culture.

A listing in the National Register provides recognition that a property is significant to the heritage of the nation, the state or the community.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Although the first people entered what is now the Lower Mississippi Valley about 12,000 years ago, the earliest major phase of earthen mound construction in this area did not begin until some 2100 years ago.

Mounds continued to be built sporadically for another 1800 years, or until around A.D. 1700.

Archeologists classify the moundbuilding Indians of the Southeast into three major chronological/cultural divisions: the Archaic, the Woodland, and the Mississippian traditions.

To date, no mounds of the Archaic period (7,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.) have been positively identified in the Lower Mississippi Valley; the mounds described in the travel itinerary all date from the last two cultural periods. The Middle Woodland period (100 B.C.- 200 A.D.) was the first era of widespread mound construction in the Lower Mississippi Valley.

Middle Woodland peoples were primarily hunters and gatherers who occupied semipermanent or permanent settlements.

Some mounds of this period were built to bury important members of local tribal groups. These burial mounds were rounded, dome-shaped structures that generally range from about 3 to 18 feet high, with diameters from 50 to 100 feet.

Distinctive artifacts obtained through long-distance trade were sometimes placed with those buried in the mounds.

The construction of burial mounds declined after the Middle Woodland, and only a few were built during the Late Woodland period (ca. AD 400-1000).

Woodland burial mounds can be visited at the Boyd, Bynum, and Pharr sites included in this itinerary.

The Mississippian period (1000-1700 A.D.) saw a resurgence of mound building across much of the southeastern United States.

Most Mississippian mounds are rectangular, flat-topped earthen platforms upon which temples or residences of chiefs were erected.

These buildings were constructed of wooden posts covered with mud plaster and had thatched roofs.

Mississippian platform mounds range in height from 8 to almost 60 feet and are from 60 to as much as 770 feet in width at the base.

Mississippian period mounds can be seen at the Winterville, Jaketown, Pocahontas, Emerald, Grand Village, Owl Creek and Bear Creek sites.

The Nanih Waiya Mound, 15 miles north of Philadelphia, Mississippi, is of unknown age, displaying the rectangular, flat-topped form of Mississippian period mounds, but pottery sherds found of the surface at the adjacent habitation area suggest a possible Middle Woodland time range.

How American Indians used the mounds varied. The purposes of the most ancient mounds found on this travel itinerary are still shrouded in mystery.

However, different theories emerge from modern archeology as to their use. Some speculate that like ancient peoples in other parts of the world, the Americans Indians built the mounds as monuments to the dead. Another theory maintains that the elite among the American Indian society lived on the raised mounds, while others speculate that the mounds served a cultural/religious function, with temples on top serviced by priests, who were well versed in astrology.

It is possible that some combination of these three theories explained the cultural phenomenon of the mounds to the people of the time, but any definite conclusions lie beyond our reach.

The mounds can be found in groups of as many as 20 or more, as at Winterville, but some stand alone.

Some mounds are arranged around broad plazas, while others are connected by earthen ridges. Their shapes vary as well. They can be flat-topped pyramids, rounded domes, or barely perceptible rises on the landscape.

The sizes vary also, from 55 feet high to 4 feet high, with the Emerald Mound, a National Historic Landmark, measuring 770 by 435 feet at the base. Two smaller mounds sit atop the expansive summit platform of the primary base at Emerald Mound.

Copyright States News Service, all right reserved.

library.northernlight.com/FB20010910810000117.html?cb=0&dx=1006&sc=0#doc

Copyright 2001, States News Service, all rights reserved


Alligator Mounds
Alligator, Adams Co.

Alligator Mounds entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1974 24 July.

Allison Mound
Webb, Tallahatchie Co.

Allison Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1988 14 December.

Arcola Mounds
Arcola, Washington Co.

Arcola Mounds entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1991 3 January.

Anderson Mound
Fearns Springs, Winston Co.

Anderson Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1973 28 March.

Baldwin's Ferry Mound
Newman, Hinds Co.

Baldwin's Ferry Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1998 24 September.

Baker Mound
Bberdeen, Monroe Co.

Baker Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1980 17 July.

Batesville Mounds (22Pa500)
Batesville, Panola Co.

Batesville Mounds entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1988 14 December.

Bear Creek Mound
Tishomingo, Tishomingo Co.

Bear Creek Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1988 22 December.

Belzoni Mound
Belzoni, Humphreys Co.

Belzoni Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1988 13 April.

Berry Mound and Village Archaeological Site
Terry, Hinds Co.

Berry Mound and Village Archaeological Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1969 25 November.

Boyd Mounds Site
Ridgeland, Madison Co.

Belzoni Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1989 14 July.

Brogan Mound and Village Site, Discontiguous District
West Point, Clay Co.

Brogan Mound and Village Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1991 24 May.

Bynum Mound and Village Site (22CS501)
Houston, Chickasaw Co.

Bynum Mound and Village Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1989 16 July.

Butler Mound and Village Site
Columbus, Lowndes Co.

Butler Mound and Village Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1978 8 December.

Carson Mounds
Clarksdale, Coahoma Co.

Carson Mounds entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1979 19 April.

Center's Creek Mound
West Point, Clay Co.

Center's Creek Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1973 14 August.

City Mound (22Hi672)
Jackson, Hinds Co.

Foster's Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1982 2 September

Dell Bullion Mound (22T1998)
Grenada, Tallahatchie Co.

Dell Bullion Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1988 14 December.

Dupree Mound Archaeological Site
Bovina, Hinds Co.

Dupree Mound Archaeological Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1969 25 November

Emerald Mound

Emerald Mound, Natchez Trace, Mississippi
Previously known as the Selzertown Site, Emerald Mound is one of the largest ceremonial mounds in the United States--a massive, flat-topped earthen structure that rises 35 feet high and covers eight acres along the Natchez Trace Parkway.

The Emerald Mound Site was entered into the National Register of Historic Places 1988 18 November.

Evansville Mounds
Evansville, Tunica Co.

Evansville Mounds entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1987 7 January.

Floyd Mound
Bovina, Hinds Co.

Floyd Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1969 25 November.

Foster's Mound
Natchez, Adams Co.

Foster's Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1982 2 September

George Mound
Oma, Lawrence Co.

George Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1987 1 March.

Graveline Mound Site
Gautier, Jackson Co.

Graveline Mound Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1987 2 July.

Herman Mound and Village Site
Starkville, Oktibbeha Co.

Herman Mound and Village Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1993 17 March.

Hunt Mound
Pope, Panola Co.

Hope Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1988 14 December.

Ingomar Mound
Ingomar, Union Co.

Ingomar Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1978 9 June.

Janet's Mound
French Camp, Choctaw Co.

Janet's Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1991 11 January

Lee, Frances, Mound Group (22HO654)
Tchula, Holmes Co.

Lee, Frances, Mound Group entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1988 6 April.

Lewis, L'Dora, Mound
Peark, Simpson Co.

Lewis, L'Dora Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1974 18 October

MacKay Mound
Columbus, Lowndes Co.

MacKay Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1978 25 August.

Midnight Mound Site
Midnight, Humphreys Co.

Midnight Mound Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1986 25 April.

Nanih Waiya Cave Mound
Philadelphia, Neshoba Co.

Nanih Waiya Cave Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1973 7 May.

Nanih Waiya Mound and Village
Fearns Springs, Winston Co.

Nanih Waiya Mound and Village entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1973 28 March.

Parker-Summerfield Mound Archaeological Site
Midnight, Humphreys Co.

Parker-Summerfield Mound Archaeological Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1997 21 March.

Pharr Mounds
Kirkville, Itawamba Co.

Pharr Mounds entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1978 23 February.

Pocahontas Mound A
Pocahontas, Hinds Co.

Pocahontas Mound A entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1969 25 November.

Pocahontas Mound B
Pocahontas, Hinds Co.

Pocahontas Mound B entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1972 11 April.

Providence Mound Group
Lexington, Holmes Co.

Providence Mound Group entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1987 1 March.

Rolling Fork Mounds
Rolling Fork, Sharkey Co.

Rolling Fork Mounds entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1974 19 October.

Sweethorne Mound
Wakeland, Leflore Co.

Sweethorne Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1978 9 June.

SJ Mound
Pearlington, Hancock Co.

SJ Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1988 13 April.

Steep Mound Site
Carthage, Leake Co.

Steep Mound Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1987 14 January.

Thelma Mound Archaeological Site
Houston, Chickasaw Co.

Thelma Mound Archaeological Site entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1994 3 November.

Vicksburg National Military Park

Vicksburg National Military Park is the site of burial mounds.

The Vicksburg National Military Park was entered in the National Registry of Historic Places 1966 15 October.

West Mound
Slate Springs, Caloun Co.

West Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 11989 16 July

Wild Wing's Mounds (22Gr713)
Holcomb, Grenada Co.

Wild Wing's Mounds entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1988 13 April.

Word Mound
Aberdeen, Monroe Co.

Word Mound entered the National Registry of Historical Places 1980 17 July.




Return to the list of Federal and State protected sites, preserved sites



home : mission : updates : sites : learn : action : links : contact


Best viewed at screen resolutions 1024 x 768 and 800 x 600
Copyright Information
For site problems contact the webmaster